True Bible Study
Home  Video Lessons  Research Articles  Study Guides  Courses  Store Products  Contact  Facebook  YouTube   Twitter

Miracles, Signs, and Wonders

In today's society we hear the word "miracle" quite often to refer to various occurrences, whether they are expected or not, whether someone prayed to God for them or not, etc. However, the Greek text of the Bible provides three root words for which some translators use the English word "miracle."

This article takes a close look at the following Greek words and provides information from the True Bible Study (TBS) translation and studies.

Greek WordsTBS TranslationTBS Explanation
Noun: dunamisabilityable-power, capability
Verb: dunamaito be ableto have ability, to be capable
Verb: dunamaoto be caused to be able (passive form)to be given ability, provided with able-power, given the capability
Verb: endunamaoto enableto be made able, to have able-power within, given ability, empowered, made capable within
Verb: adunateoto be unablenot to be able, to be without capability
Adjective: dunatosablecapable
Noun: semeionsigna designated standard or signal showing authenticity
Noun: teraswondera supernatural occurrence

 

Romans 4:20 - verb: endunamao; and verse 21 - adjective: dunatos

Romans 4:19-22:
.19And not having weakened with the belief he mentally-perceived the body of himself having been made-dead2 beginning-to-be about a hundred-years, and the process-of-dying of the womb of Sarah; .20but into the promise of God he was not throughly-judged with unbelief but he was enabled with belief having given glory to God .21and having been fully-assured that the (One Who) promised2 is able also to do (it).22on-which-account "it was calculated to him into righteousness."

Abraham did not become weak (lose strength) with the belief (in the faith, his trust relative to God and with respect to what God told him - he remained strong concerning the belief that God gave to him)…

  • when he mentally-perceived (fully took-note, attentively-noticed in his mind physically seeing)
    • his body which was already made-dead (as far as reproduction was concerned when looked-at from the physical, fleshy, human point of view; refer to Hebrews 11:11 and 12)
    • when he was beginning to be about one hundred years old,
  • and the process-of-dying (the putting to death, progressing deadness)
    • of Sarah’s womb (she was still alive but had not given birth to any child and was past the normal age whereby women can conceive);
  • but into the promise of God (regarding God’s promise)
    • he was not throughly-judged with unbelief (Abraham was not judged through-and-through to lack belief, he was not judged to be without belief, a decision was not made by God regarding him separating or differentiating him as being with/in the state of faithlessness)
    • but on the contrary, he was enabled with belief (caused to be made-able, to have able-power within, given-ability, empowered, made-capable with/in/by his belief of the belief that God had spoken to him in promise)
      • having given glory to God (he credited God with importance, splendor, renown concerning this situation/circumstance)
      • and having been fully-assured (filled-up with assurance, he had the full contents of assurance, conviction and confidence)
      • that the One Who had promised (God had already proclaimed or declared the message of His intentions to him)
      • is able (capable, has the able-power) also to perform the promise –
  • on account of this (Abraham’s response to God)
    • "it was calculated to him into righteousness (Abraham’s belief of what God said to him was reckoned, computed, counted to him for or resulting-in justness, justification)."

Hebrews 11:34 - noun: dunamis, verb: dunamao

Hebrews 11:32-34:
.32And what yet may I say? – for the time will fail me telling concerning Gideon, Barak, Samson, Jephthah, both David and Samuel and the prophets, .33who by means of belief contested-against kingdoms, worked righteousness, attained promises, fenced-in (the) mouths of lions, .34quenched (the) ability of fire, fled (the) mouths of (the) sword, were caused-to-be-able on weakness, were caused-to-become strong in war, leaned others’ enclosures,

Paul is writing about the lives of some of the old covenant people who lived their lives to/for God, and in verse 32 he writes:

In truth, the chronological time will fail me (leave me, run-out or dry-up for me, there’s not enough time for me) relating in detail concerning…

  • Gideon (Judges chapters 6-8),
  • Barak (Judges chapters 4 and 5),
  • Samson (or ‘Sampson’; Judges chapters 13-16),
  • Jephthah (Judges chapters 11 and 12 ),
    • both David (I Samuel 16:10 and following through chapter 31; II Samuel chapters 1-24; I Kings chapter 1 and 2:1-11; I Chronicles chapters 11-29; the Book of Psalms; Acts 2:29-31)
    • and Samuel (I Samuel chapters 1 and following to 25:1)
    • and the prophets (also the other prophets who lived throughout the old covenant times; these prophets were people who spoke-forth God's words as directed by God concerning the past, present and/or future to others),

...who, by means of belief (through the information that God made known to them to have confidence-in with assured certainty and surety)…

  • contested against kingdoms (they conflicted with and overcame kings and their territories, rulers’ royal dominions, including what was going on within those kingdoms such as idolatry, etc, and sometimes this contesting included any wrongdoings going-on among the people of Israel),
  • worked righteousness (they expended their energy producing justice, justness, what was right/just from God's point of view),
  • attained promises (they hit-the-mark that they intended to reach, they achieved their goal, which was the fulfillment of certain promises that God had proclaimed to them; God had declared the message of His own intention regarding certain things to them and these promises came to pass during their lifetimes),
  • fenced-in the mouths of lions (they stopped, shut-up, hedged-in, enclosed so as to inhibit the lions from using their mouths),
  • quenched the ability of fire (they put-out, extinguished the able-power, the capability that fire has),
  • fled the mouths of the sword (they put themselves in flight from the edges of the sword and thus escaped; here we should notice that God’s Word says that they fled by means of belief – not through fear or anything else),
  • were caused to be able on weakness (they were given ability, were provided with able-power, capability in the presence of their own physical or mental feebleness, infirmness)....

Matthew 8:2 - verb: dunamai

Matthew 8:1-3:
8:1(After) his having descended from the mountain many crowds followed him. .2And look!, a leper having come-towards (him) used-to worship him saying, "Lord, if-ever you may intend you are able to clean me." .3And having stretched-out the hand he touched him saying, "I intend – you must be cleaned," and immediately his leprosy was cleaned.

When Jesus came down away from the mountain (mount, hill) big throngs of people followed (came after) him.

  • And look! (see, behold, calling attention to what happened next),
  • a leper having come towards Jesus used-to worship him (was worshipping, spent time paying homage to him, being obeisant towards him)
  • saying, "Lord (Master), if it should happen that
    • you would intend (will)
    • you are able (you have the able-power, you are capable)
      • to clean me (to make me free from all mixture, cause me not to be mixed with something else, i.e. clean me from my leprosy)."

Jesus stretched-out (extended) his hand and touched the leper (he applied himself to him) saying...

  • "I intend (I presently and actively will) –
    • you must be cleaned."

And immediately his leprosy was cleaned (caused to be clean, made clean – he didn't have leprosy anymore).

Matthew 9:28 - verb: dunamai

Matthew 9:27-30:
.27And passing-by from-there two blind-men followed Jesus shouting and saying, "You must be merciful-towards us, son of David." .28But having gone into the house the blind-men came-towards him and Jesus says to them, "Do you believe that I am able to do this?" They say to him, "Yes, Lord." .29Then he touched their eyes saying, "According to your belief it must be caused-to-become to you." .30And their eyes were opened....

Two blind men followed Jesus crying-out and saying...

  • "You must be merciful towards us,
    • son of David."

To be merciful or show mercy means: to actively not bestow merited-judgment, to withhold punishment from a person who deserves to be punished, thus giving active relief. These two blind men strongly asked Jesus to be merciful towards them and addressed him as "son of David" thereby letting Jesus know that they believed that he was the son, offspring, descendant of King David promised by God. Jesus was the legal heir to the throne of King David. God had given Jesus the authority and ability to show them mercy on His behalf.

  • But having gone into the house the blind men came towards him
  • and Jesus says to them,
    • "Do you believe that I am able to do this (do you have faith, trust that I have the able-power, capability to perform what you said)?"
  • They say to him, "Yes, Lord (Master)."
  • Then he touched their eyes saying,
    • "According to your belief it must be caused-to-become to you (in accordance with the faith/trust that you have it must come to pass, happen for/with you)."

And their eyes were opened (they could see with their eyes).

Matthew 17:16 and 19 - verb: dunamai; and verse 20 - verb: adunateo

Matthew 17:14-20:
.14And having come towards the crowd a man came-towards him kneeling (before) him .15and saying, “Lord, you must be merciful-towards my son because he is being lunatic and he has badly, for often he falls into the fire and often into the water, .16and I carried him towards your learning-disciples and they were not caused-to-be-able to attend-to him.”
.17But Jesus having answered said, “Oh generation unbelieving and having been throughly-turned2, until when will I be with you, until when will I hold-myself-up-with you? You must carry him here to me.” .18And Jesus censured it and the devil went-out away-from him and the child was attended-to from that hour.
.19Then the learning-disciples having come-towards Jesus privately said, “Because-of-what were we not caused-to-be-able to throw it out?” .20But (Jesus) says to them, “Because-of your little-belief, for with-certainty I say to you if-ever you may have belief as a kernel of mustard you will say to this mountain, ‘You must depart from-here there,’ and it will be caused to depart and nothing will be unable to you.”

After they had come towards the throng of people, a man came towards Jesus falling on his knees to him and saying...

“Lord (Master), you must be merciful-towards my son (show mercy, actively not bestow merited-judgment, withhold punishment from my son who may deserve to be punished, thus giving active relief to him)...

  • because he is being lunatic (epileptic, thought to be related to the different phases of the moon as viewed from the earth)
  • and he has badly (holds something in his body and/or mind that is bad, contrary to what God would want him to have),
  • for many times he falls into the fire and many times into the water,
    • and I carried (brought) him towards your learning-disciples (excluding Peter and James and John who had been with Jesus)
    • and they were not caused-to-be-able to attend-to him (they were not caused to have the able-power, not given the capability to treat him therapeutically, to take care of him as necessary).”

This was the father’s opinion of the situation.

But Jesus answered by saying, “Oh generation unbelieving and having been throughly-turned2….” By using the word translated “Oh” Jesus emphasizes that he is addressing the generation as though it were a living being, even though a “generation” refers to a time-period of a race, descent or kind of living-beings. Jesus describes that generation as:

  • unbelieving (this word is an adjective meaning: faithless, not trusting relative-to God, lacking belief, without faith/trust regarding God and the things of God),
  • and having been throughly-turned and it is still throughly-turned (it is completely turned-around, it has twisted 180 degrees from the truth of God's Word - perverse, distorted, it is turned the wrong way).

“Oh generation unbelieving and having been throughly-turned and continuing throughly-turned, until when will I be with you (continuing to what time will I be in company and association with you people), until when will I hold-myself-up-with you (continuing to what time will I hold myself in an upright-position putting up with and enduring and sustaining you people)? You must carry him here to me.”

After Jesus’ rhetorical questions, since they did not know the answers but it may have helped some of them there to realize that Jesus’ time with them was limited, he told the people to bring the child to him.

  • Jesus censured it (he inflicted penalty or infringement, he reprimanded, he judged by estimating the correct honor or value due in this situation which was punishment for the offense committed by the devil/demon)
  • and the devil came out away-from the man’s son and the child was attended-to from that hour (he was treated therapeutically, taken care of as necessary immediately).

In this particular case it was a devil-spirit causing this child to be epileptic and not a physical disorder or disability. Jesus attended appropriately to the child in this specific situation.

Then, when the learning-disciples came towards Jesus on their own without all the other people present, they said...

  • “Because-of-what (on account of what, why)
  • were we not caused-to-be-able to throw it out (not caused to have the able-power, not given the capability to cast it out)?”

But Jesus says to them, “Because-of your little-belief (on account of your small amount of belief)….”

The Greek noun translated "little-belief" is a combination of the word "little" which is the opposite of "much," and the word "belief (faith, trust)." Here, Jesus was expressing the reason as to why they were not caused to be able to throw this devil out from the child: they only had little belief, faith or trust towards/in God in this situation. They only believed a small-portion of God's words to them.

Jesus told his learning-disciples that it was because-of their little-belief, and then he explains further:

  • “for with-certainty (truly, surely, amen)
  • I say to you
  • if it should ever happen that you would have belief (if you would ever hold faith, trust, that-which is given to you to believe by God regarding a specific situation)
  • in comparison to a kernel of mustard (not a piece of a kernel but the whole kernel, even though it may be small relative to other things but it is sufficient to grow and produce into a tree)
    • you will say (tell with your mind being cognizant of what you are saying)
    • to this mountain,
      • “You must change your direction moving from being in this place to that place,”
    • and it will be caused to move from here to there,
  • and not one thing will be lacking ability (incapable, without able-power)
    • to/for you.

Mark chapter 9 includes additional information about this same event – Jesus also told his learning-disciples that they would not be able to cause a devil-spirit to go/come out-from someone or someplace except within the sphere of action of prayer. Prayer is communicating-with or speaking-to God regarding things. This information indicates that the learning-disciples did not pray to God regarding this particular situation and therefore refused the specific belief to be believed and obeyed during it.

Jesus on the other hand prayed and obeyed, believing what God told him regarding this specific circumstance, which included first speaking with the child’s father about the father’s lack of belief regarding this situation. When the father heard what Jesus told him, he replied that he believed regarding Jesus but he needed help for his unbelief regarding this situation. Then Jesus cast the devil-spirit (demon) that was in this child out-from him and the child was attended to appropriately.

Mathew 11:20, 21, and 23 - noun: dunamis

Matthew 11:20-24:
.20Then he began to reproach the cities in which most of his abilities came-to-pass, because they did not repent: .21"Woe to you, Chorazin, woe to you, Bethsaida, because if the abilities, the (abilities) having come-to-pass in you, came-to-pass in Tyre and Sidon, of-old ever in sackcloth and ash they repented. .22Besides I say to you, it will be more-bearable for Tyre and Sidon in (the) day of judgment than for you.
.23And you, Capernaum, you will not be heightened until heaven, will you? - (no.) You will be descended until gravedom because if the abilities, the (abilities) having come-to-pass in you, came-to-pass in Sodom, it remained ever up-until today. .24Besides I say to you that it will be more-bearable for (the) land of Sodom in (the) day of judgment than for you."

Jesus began to reproach (started to defame, insult) the cities where the biggest number of the able-powers which he brought to pass happened, because they did not repent. The people in these cities did not change their minds from bad to good regarding God and the things of God after re-thinking God's Word that Jesus spoke and demonstrated to them.

  • "Woe (regret, misery, distress) to/for you, Chorazin,
  • woe to/for you, Bethsaida,
    • because if the abilities (capabilities, able-powers) that happened within you two cities,
    • had happened in Tyre and Sidon,
      • of-old it could have happened that in sackcloth and ash (wearing a course cloth and covered in ash, demonstrating their deep regret and grief)
      • they repented.

Besides (moreover, more/other than that) I say to you who are listening to me, it will be comparatively more endurable for Tyre and Sidon in/within/during the day of judgment (judgment day, the time-period of the action of pronouncing sentence) than for you Chorazin and Bethsaida.

And you, Capernaum, you will not be brought into a high position until you would reach a position relative-to God, will you? The sentence structure indicates that the unspoken answer to this question must be: no, Capernaum will not be heightened until heaven.

You will be brought into a low position until you will reach the position of gravedom (being in the state of death, dead in the grave)...

  • because if the abilities (capabilities, able-powers)
  • that happened within you,
  • happened in Sodom,
    • it could have happened that it remained (stayed) up-until today.
  • Besides I say to you who are listening to me, that it will be more-bearable for the land of Sodom in the day of judgment than for you Capernaum."

What Jesus said was what God wanted him to say – therefore his reproach was correct and true and just. Jesus was present with the people of those cities at that time but they continued to reject him even though he demonstrated abilities to them.

Matthew 13:54 and 58 - noun: dunamis

Matthew 13:54-58:
.54And coming into his fatherland he used-to teach them in their synagogue, so-as-for them to be shocked and to say, “From-where (comes) the wisdom herself and the abilities to this-person? .55This-person is the son of the craftsman, isn’t he? - (yes.) His mother is said (as) Mary, and his brothers James and Joseph and Simon and Judas, aren’t they? - (yes.) .56And his sisters, they are all with us, aren’t they? - (yes.) Therefore from-where (comes) all these-things to this-person?” .57And they used-to-be caused-offense in him.
But Jesus said to them, “A prophet is not dishonored except in his fatherland and in (his) house.”
.58And he did not do there many abilities because-of their unbelief.

Jesus came into his fatherland of Nazareth and he spent time instructing the people there in their synagogue, which is the place where people assembled to hear teachings about God and the things of God.

The consequence and result of this was for them to be shocked (exceedingly-struck in their minds) and they said...

  • “From what source or place does
  • wisdom herself come
  • and the abilities (able-powers, capabilities)
    • to this-person?”

The people listening recognized that what Jesus was teaching them was truly wise and they were struck by it and tried to figure out where he got it from. They continued by asking…

  • “This-person is the son of the craftsman (this word usually refers to one who is adept at working with wood, a carpenter, but may also include working with other materials as necessary, as a builder),
    • isn’t he?
  • His mother is said as Mary (called or named Mary, sometimes written as Miriam),
  • and his brothers (referring to his half-brothers who had the same mother but a different father):
    • James (or Jacob)
    • and Joseph (or Joses)
    • and Simon
    • and Judas (or Jude),
      • aren’t they?
  • And his sisters, they are all with us, aren’t they?”

The construction of these questions indicates that the expected answers should be agreement: “Yes, that’s right.”

  • “Logically following -
    • where comes all these-things to this-person?”

And they were offended at him. They were caused to stumble because they struck or hit against what Jesus was teaching. They were offended after they did a ‘background check’ on him.

What did Jesus say when he knew that they were offended at what he was teaching them? Did he say, “Oh, sorry for offending you, sorry for causing you to stumble, I’ll stop teaching, I’ll change what I am teaching to suit you, I’ll compromise on God’s Word so that you will like what I’m saying and you will like me too” – did he? NO!

But Jesus said to them...

  • “A prophet is not dishonored
    • except in his fatherland
    • and in his house.”

A “prophet” is a person who speaks-forth God's words as directed concerning the past, present and/or future to (before, in front of) a person or people.

Jesus told the people asking all the questions that a prophet is not without-honor (not lacking estimation of being valuable, not without being deemed to be worthy of price) except in his native land and in his house (among his family, relatives). The people in his fatherland and in his house were not honoring Jesus, a prophet speaking forth God’s words to them.

  • And he did not do there many abilities (evidences consisting-of able-power, capabilities)
    • because of their unbelief.

Jesus only did a few abilities in this area at that time. Why? On account of their unbelief (disbelief, lack of belief, being without faith/trust relative to God and the things of God).

Most of the people did not believe what Jesus was saying and teaching them. They did not believe the truth about God and His kingdom which they heard from Jesus.

Matthew 12:38 and 39 - noun (four times): semeion

Matthew 12:38-41:
.38Then some of the scribes and Pharisees asked him saying, “Teacher, we intend to see a sign from you.” .39But the (one) having answered said to them, “An evil and adulterous generation earnestly-seeks-after a sign, and a sign will not be given to it except the sign of Jonah the prophet, .40for wholly-as ‘Jonah used-to-be in the belly of the large-fish three days and three nights’ thus the son of man will be in the heart of the earth three days and three nights. .41Ninevetian adult-males will resurrect in the judgment with this generation and will condemn it because they repented into the heralded-proclamation of Jonah, and look!, more-than Jonah (is) here. 

Some of the scribes and Pharisees asked Jesus saying, “Teacher, we intend to see a sign from you (we will to perceive a designated signal or standard of authenticity from you).”

But Jesus answered them by saying...

  • “An evil and adulterous generation intensely looks for a sign,
  • and a sign will not be given to it
    • except the sign of Jonah who was a prophet (he spoke-forth the words that God told him to speak to people).
  • In truth, wholly-as ‘Jonah was continuing to be in the belly of the large-fish three days and three nights,’
    • in this manner the son of man will be in the heart of the earth three days and three nights….” Refer to Jonah 1:17.

Jesus was prophesying regarding his being dead and buried for a time-period of three days and three nights (72 hours) – no more and no less.

Matthew 16:1 and 4 - noun (four times): semeion

Matthew 16:1, 2(a) and 4:
16:1And the Pharisees and Sadducees having come-towards (Jesus) tempting asked him to point-upon a sign from heaven to them. .2(a)But the (one) having answered said to them, .4“An evil and adulterous generation earnestly-seeks-after a sign, and a sign will not be given to it except the sign of Jonah.” And having left them down he went-away.

The Pharisees and Sadducees came towards Jesus tempting him (making trial of him in the bad sense of putting to the test with evil and ill-intent enticing to do wrong). They were trying to cause him to fall-aside from the truth of God's Word, enticing to make him disbelieve what God says during that specific situation. The devil is the source of tempting with/by evil.

These Pharisees and Sadducees asked him to display a sign (a designated signal or standard of authenticity) to them from the sky above, but figuratively referring to God.

But Jesus answered by saying to them...

  • “An evil and adulterous generation intensely looks for a sign,
  • and a sign will not be given to it
    • except the sign of Jonah.”

And Jesus left them down (in the sense of leaving them behind him where they were) and he went away somewhere else.

John 2:11 - noun: semeion

John 2:1-11:
2:1And on the day, the third (day), there became a marriage in Cana of Galilee, and the mother of Jesus was there, .2and both Jesus was called and his learning-disciples into the marriage (celebrations).
.3And (after the) wine having lacked, the mother of Jesus says towards him, "They do not have wine." .4Jesus says to her, "What (is that) with me and with you, woman? - my hour is not-yet come." .5His mother says to the ministers, "Which thing ever he may say to you - you must do." .6But six stony water-pots were lying there according to the cleaning of the Judeans making-space by two or three measures. .7Jesus says to them, "You must fill the water-pots of water"; and they filled them until above. .8And he says to them, "You must draw now and you must carry to the chief-waiter"; and the (ministers) carried.
.9But as the chief-waiter tasted, the water having been caused-to-become2 wine - and he had not known from-where it is but the ministers had known, the (ministers) having drawn2 the water - the chief-waiter sounds (to) the bridegroom .10and he says to him, "Every man firstly puts the beautiful wine, and whenever they may be made-drunk the lesser (wine) - you kept2 the beautiful wine until now."
.11Jesus did this beginning of the signs in Cana of Galilee and he manifested his glory; and his learning-disciples believed into him.

In this record during the marriage celebrations, the water was caused to become wine while the ministers were carrying the liquid to the chief-waiter. These ministers believed what Jesus said to them and they did exactly what he instructed them to do.

Jesus did (performed, made, produced)...

  • this beginning (this initial starting point, commencement, original, the first time-wise implying others are/will-be after this one)
    • of the signs (designated signals or standards of authentication, showing or proving authenticity)

...in Cana of Galilee and...

  • he manifested (evidenced, brought to light, showed-forth)
    • his glory (importance, splendor, renown);

...and his learning-disciples believed into him (his students had faith-in, trusted into or regarding Jesus whereby he was the object of their believing, they believed what he said and did).

John 2:23 - noun: semeion

John 2:23:
.23But as he was in Jerusalem in the Passover in the feast, many-people believed into his name viewing-with-attention the signs of him which he did.

While Jesus was spending time among the people who were in Jerusalem for the celebration of eating the Passover (one day, 14th Nisan) and the Feast of Unleavened Bread (7 days, 15-21 Nisan), a lot of people...

  • believed into his name (they had faith, trusted directed-to and regarding the authority and power that Jesus evidenced whereby his name was the object of belief)

...as they were continuing to attentively view (contemplating in their minds)...

  • the signs of him (refer to verse 11 above)
    • which Jesus was doing.

Jesus was performing (making, producing) the signs. His action of doing these signs was not a quick one-time occurrence, but he repeated them during that time of Pentecost and the Feast of Unleavened Bread in 27 A.D.

John 4:48 - noun: semeion, noun: teras; and verse 54 - noun: semeion

John 4:46-54:
And there was some kingly-person whose son was weak in Capernaum - .47this-person, having heard that Jesus is-come out-from Judea into Galilee, went-away towards him and he asked in order that he may descend and may heal his son, for he was about to die. .48Therefore Jesus said towards him, "If-ever you may not see signs and wonders, you may never believe." .49The kingly-person says towards him, "Lord, you must descend before my young-child dies." .50Jesus says to him, "You must journey - your son lives." The man believed the word which Jesus said to him and he journeyed; .51but already (during) his descending his slaves met him saying that his child lives; .52therefore he asked-to-learn the hour from them in which he had more-wellness; therefore they said to him that, "The fever left him yesterday (the) seventh hour." .53Therefore the father knew that (it came to pass) in that hour in which Jesus said to him, "Your son lives"; and he believed and his whole house.
.54This second sign Jesus did again having come out-from Judea into Galilee.

There was someone of the royal lineage or an official whose son was weak (without/lacking strength, infirm, feeble) in Capernaum, which is a town on the north side of the sea of Galilee on lower elevation than Cana.

After this man heard that Jesus arrived from Judea into Galilee, he went away towards him and was asking - what? - for the purpose and result that Jesus would come down into Capernaum and would heal his son (cause him to recover from illness), for he was on the point of dying.

Therefore Jesus said towards the man...

  • "If it should happen at any time that you would not see (this is the plural form of "you" - to include the descendants of Israel/Jacob - that you would not see to the end of perceiving and knowing with your minds)
    • signs (designated signals or standards of authentication, showing or proving authenticity)
    • and wonders (supernatural occurrences),
  • you may never believe (you would not ever believe me, you would not at any time have faith in what I tell you, you would never trust what I speak to you regarding myself and God and the things pertaining to God)."

Even though Jesus included this man in the category of people requiring the need of seeing signs and wonders to be done before they believe what Jesus was saying and doing - the kingly-person did not stop, but instead he says towards Jesus...

  • "Lord (he now addresses Jesus as "Master" recognizing his power and authority in this situation),
  • you must descend before my young-child dies."

Jesus says to him...

  • "You must journey (pass from here returning to your house) -
    • your son lives (he is alive, he is living)."

John the writer continues by explaining that the man...

  • believed (had faith-in, trusted)
    • the word (the spoken-account containing individual words constituting what is spoken - the word specifying that he must journey and that his son is alive)
      • which Jesus said to him (Jesus spoke God's words to him in this situation)
  • and - what did the man do? -
    • he journeyed;

...but by this time, while the man was going down from Cana to Capernaum, his slaves met him (the servants who were bound to serve him, his bond-servants came without prior arrangement to meet him) saying that his child is living (he is alive).

Following-on logically, the man asked to find out information from his slaves - when did his son get better from his weakness (recover to being in good health, become well again from the fever)?

They said to him that, "The fever (the fiery or burning heat, the high temperature) let go of him yesterday at the seventh hour (1 pm in the afternoon)."

Therefore the father knew (he had a truly active and relative knowing, he was personally knowledgeable of the fact) that the healing happened in that specific hour (during the exact limited period of time) when Jesus said to him, "Your son lives"; and...

  • emphatically he believed (he himself had faith-in, he trusted)
  • and his whole house (referring to the entire household of people belonging to him).

What did this kingly-person and his whole house believe after he heard what his slaves told him? In verse 50 the man had already believed the word that Jesus spoke to him about his son being alive and for him to return home. However, in verse 53 John the writer records that the man and his whole household of people believed regarding Jesus himself. This is what Jesus had spoken generally to him in verse 48 - "If-ever you may not see signs and wonders, you may never believe" - believe regarding Jesus, believe who he is, believe that God sent him, etc (also refer to John 2:23).

Jesus performed this other sign in Cana of Galilee, which was the second one taking place in that location - the first sign that Jesus did there is recorded in John 2:1-11.

Acts 2:22 - noun: dunamis, noun: teras, noun: semeion

Acts 2:22:
.22Adult-males, Israelites, you must hear these words - Jesus the Nazarene, an adult-male having been pointed-out2 from God into you with abilities and wonders and signs which God did by means of him in your midst according as you yourselves knew2

Peter reminds the people that they were grown-men, and that they should listen to the words he was speaking regarding Jesus who was brought up in Nazareth and called "the Nazarene" even though he was born in Bethlehem.

"Adult-males, Israelites, you must hear these words... 

  • Jesus the Nazarene,
  • an adult-male having been pointed-out and continuing pointed-out from God (demonstrated, exhibited, indicated as pointing-out with God's finger and so made public by God)
  • into, directed to you
    • with abilities (able-powers, capabilities)
    • and wonders (supernatural occurrences)
    • and signs (designated standards or signals showing authenticity)
      • which God performed
      • through him
      • during his ministry among you
      • according as you yourselves knew and continue to know (perceive)...."

Acts 1:8 - noun: dunamis

This record took place after the resurrection of the Lord Jesus Christ but before his ascension into heaven and before the day of Pentecost.

Acts 1:8:
.8but you will receive ability - the holy spirit having come on you - and you will be my witnesses in both Jerusalem and all Judea and Samaria and until (the) last-part of the earth."

Jesus was speaking to his apostles and in verse 8 he says:

  • You will receive ability (take the able-power, capability) -
  • and you will be my witnesses.

Witnesses of whom? Witnesses of the resurrected Christ Jesus - not of themselves, nor of what they did previously, nor of the local denomination, nor of the latest craze, nor of anything else!

Witnesses are people who bear witness, attesting to the information and knowledge that they have regarding a certain-thing, and they can therefore confirm it giving information bringing it to light on the strength of the authority that they have.

Christ Jesus' witnesses would therefore receive information or knowledge from him via the holy spirit that they were going to receive not many days from then and thereby give that information to people as he directs.

They were to be his witnesses among the people:

1.     within Jerusalem - the city which was the center for those who claimed to love and believe God and His words, the Judeans/Israelites ,
2.    and within every-part of Judea - the countryside of those who claimed to love and believe God and His words, the Judeans/Israelites living outside of the city,
3.    and those living in Samaria - the area where people of the Judean/Israeli background had mixed with people of the Gentile background, but who also claimed to love and believe God,
4.   and until the last, most-remote part, the final or extreme place, the uttermost part of the earth - the area where people of the Gentile background did not claim to love and believe God and His words.

I Corinthians 12:10 - noun: dunamis

I Corinthians 12:7 and 10:

.7But the manifestation of the spirit is given to each-person towards the-thing contributing,
 ....10but for another (contribution) in-workings of ability....

Paul continues teaching concerning spiritual-things and he explains that...

  • the manifestation of/from the spirit (the spirit's evidence of itself)
  • is presently given (by God Who is the source, or by the Lord Jesus Christ on behalf of God)
    • to each-person (the holy-person having the gift of holy spirit within him/her is the recipient and receives the evidence individually, particularly, singly, distinctly)
  • – why is the manifestation of the spirit given to each holy-person? –
    • towards the-thing that is contributing (for the purpose and intent of that-which is conferring help and benefit to the recipient of what is contributed, the contribution).

In verse 10 Paul includes: 

  • for another spiritual contribution:
    • in-workings consisting of ability.

In-workings of ability refer to powerfully active works being done within, the effects of energizing able-power, energies of capability. The spirit makes these in-workings of ability known and available to the holy-person (Christian).

Hebrews 2:4 - noun: semeion, noun: teras, noun: dunamis

Hebrews 2:3 and 4:
.3how will we escape having been unconcerned of so-great a salvation, the-one-which, having received a beginning to be uttered-forth by means of the Lord, was made-firm into us by the (people) having heard, .4God bearing-witness-together both with signs and wonders and variegated abilities and distributions of holy spirit according to His intention?

How will emphatically we escape (flee out from a rightly-due compensation payment) if we are...

  • unconcerned of so-great a salvation (after we have been without concern, careless, showed no interest, disregarded such a degree of safety),
    • the salvation which,
      • after it had received a beginning (start, origin)
      • to be spoken by God to mankind through the Lord (Master, Jesus Christ),
    • was made-firm into us (it was made sure, steady, definite for us)
      • by the agency of the people who heard the Lord speaking,
  • God bearing-witness-together (God is presently and actively witnessing, attesting with His knowledge emphatically of/for this salvation in conjunction with what these people heard and spoke to us)
    • both with signs (signals or standards of designation and authentication)
    • and wonders (supernatural occurrences)
    • and variegated abilities (manifold able-powers, various capabilities)
    • and distributions of holy spirit (impartations of holy spirit, this includes all that emanates from the spirit, such as movement, speech, etc, actions done according to and motivated by spirit)
      • according to His intention (God’s active volition and desire, His will)?

Acts 2:43 - noun: teras, noun: semeion

Acts 2:42 and 43:
.42and they were being strong-with the teaching of the apostles and the sharing-in-common, the breaking of bread and the prayers, .43and fear came-to-pass on every soul, and many wonders and signs came-to-pass by means of the apostles,

The people who believed what the apostles told them on the day of Pentecost were being strong (attending-constantly, persevering or occupying themselves) with:

  • the teaching of the apostles (the authoritative instruction, the contents of what is taught, the right doctrine regarding God and the things of God that the apostles were teaching them)
    • and the sharing-in-common (the partaking of/in/with the same-thing, participation and communion with one-another of what is common to all),
  • the breaking of bread (eating together breaking the bread into pieces being shared among themselves)
    • and the prayers (their communications to and with God, the general speaking towards/with God).

Fear came-to-pass on every soul. Every holy-person became this way. They had fright, being afraid at the consequences of the performance of any wrong behavior, and so they manifested the awe and respect that is rightfully due and ought to be shown towards the Lord Jesus Christ and towards God his Father.

A lot of both...

  • wonders (supernatural occurrences)
  • and signs (designated signals of authentication)
    • came to pass through the apostles.

Acts 4:30 - noun: teras, noun: semeion

Acts 4:23-30:
.23But having been loosened they went towards (their) own-people and they announced as-many-things-as the chief-priests and the elders said towards them, .24and the (apostles) having heard like-mindedly lifted (their) sound towards God and said,
"Master, You (are) the (One) having made the heaven and the earth and the sea and all the-things in them, .25the (One), by means of holy spirit of the mouth of our father David, Your child, having said, 'In-order-for-that were (the) Gentiles haughty and (the) peoples cared-for empty-things; .26the kings of the earth stood-beside and the rulers were gathered-together on the same-objective against the Lord and against His Christ,'
.27for they were gathered-together in this city on truth on Your holy child Jesus whom You anointed, both Herod and Pontius Pilate together with (the) Gentiles and (the) peoples of Israel, .28to do as-many-things-as Your hand and (Your) deliberate-determination marked-out-beforehand to come-to-pass; .29and the-things now, Lord, You must look on their threats and You must give to Your slaves (the ability) to utter-forth Your Word with all boldness .30in Your stretching-out Your hand into healing and signs and wonders to come-to-pass by means of the name of Your holy child Jesus";

When Peter and John were let loose (unbound, released, let go from imprisonment) by the religious hierarchy, they went to their own people, as opposed to going to some public place where people of all different beliefs would be. They went to where the rest of the apostles were located and they announced (related, told the message) to them how much the chief/high priests and the elder-men had said to them.

What did they do having heard what they said? Did they go to the nearest bar and get drunk and say, "That's it, that's the end of it!"? Or did they get the largest weapon they could find and go with the intention of badly injuring or killing the council members? No! Like-mindedly (passionately of the same mind) they raised their voices together towards God in prayer to Him for His help in this situation.

They prayed to God, and in verse 29 they included:

  • “…and the things now (taking place at the present time),
  • Lord (referring to God),
  • You must look on their threats
  • and You must give to Your slaves (bond-servants, we will do Your will, say what you want us to say, perform what You want us to perform – give to us, Your slaves)
  • the capability to speak Your Word (not our own words)
  • with all/every boldness (freedom, frankness and openness of speaking)
  • while within the sphere of action of You extending Your hand (figuratively referring to Your authority, power, etc)
    • with a view to and resulting-in
    • healing
    • and signs (designated signals of authentication)
    • and wonders (supernatural occurrences)

Acts 5:12 - noun: semeion, noun: teras

Acts 5:12-16:
.12But by means of the hands of the apostles there came-to-pass many signs and wonders among the people – and they were all-together like-minded in the pillared-porch of Solomon, .13but of the remaining-people not-one-person dared to be-glued-together to them but the people expressed-the-greatness-of them, .14and rather multitudes of both adult-males and women believing the Lord were added – .15so-that also to carry-out the weak-people and to put (them) on small-beds and mattresses into the wide-streets in order that (with) Peter coming also if-ever (his) shadow may shadow-on some of them, .16and the multitude of the cities surrounding Jerusalem also came-together carrying weak-people and (people) being crowded by unclean spirits, the-people-who all-together were attended-to.

Through the apostles’ hands a lot of signs (designated signals of authenticity) and wonders (supernatural occurrences) happened among the people.

The apostles were all at the same time gathered passionately of the same mind in the pillared porch of Solomon in the temple area, but none of the rest of the people ventured to cleave with/to them, but contrary to doing that, the people expressed the apostles’ greatness (they enlarged, magnified, acknowledged them to be great men).

More multitudes of both grown men and women believing (having faith, trusting) in or regarding the Lord Jesus Christ were added to the apostles and the other people who had previously believed and then received holy spirit-life.

The consequence and result was that…

  • also these people were bringing out the weak people (those who were sick, without strength)
  • and putting them on little beds and mattresses into the wide/broad streets
    • in order that,
      • when Peter was coming/going among them,
    • it might also happen that his shadow would shadow-on (overshadow) some of them,
  • plus the multitude of people from the cities round about Jerusalem also came-together
  • bringing weak-people
  • and those unsaved people who were being crowded by unclean spirits (harassed, vexed by spirits which are not clean from God's viewpoint, referring to devil-spirits, demons) –
    • and all of these people all-together were attended-to (taken-care of and treated therapeutically as needed by the apostles).

What wonderful deliverance these people received in the spirit category and in the physical category!

Acts 6:8 - noun: dunamis, noun: teras, noun: semeion

Acts 6:5-10:
.5And the word pleased before all the multitude and they selected-for-themselves Stephen, an adult-male full of belief and of holy spirit, and Philip and Prochorus and Nicanor and Timon and Parmenas and Nicolas, a proselyte from Antioch, .6who stood before the apostles, and having prayed they put (their) hands on them; .7and the word of God increased and the number of the learning-disciples in Jerusalem was vehemently multiplied and a big crowd of the priests were obedient to the belief.
.8And Stephen, full of grace and ability, did great wonders and signs among the people. .9But some of the (people) out-from the synagogue, the (synagogue) being said (as) Libertines stood-up, and Cyrenians and Alexandrians and of the (people) from Cilicia and Asia, disputing-together with Stephen, .10and they were not strong to stand-against the wisdom and the spirit by-which he uttered-forth.

In verse 5, Stephen is described as a man being filled-up in the everyday living of his life with belief (faith, trust relative to God) and of holy spirit (receiving information from his holy spirit).

Stephen had previously believed what the apostles taught and so he received the gift of holy spirit at that time, and now he was living it - he believed the fullness of belief that God and the Lord Jesus Christ continued to give to him via his holy spirit.

While Stephen was carrying-out the function of service that had been assigned to him, having the full-contents of grace and able-power (capability) from God and the Lord Jesus Christ via his holy spirit-life…

  • he was doing great wonders (supernatural occurrences)
  • and signs (designated standards or signals showing authenticity)
    • among the people.

However, his demonstration of the power of God so irritated certain people (who did not believe the truth of God's Word as revealed on and since the day of Pentecost) that they stood up debating with Stephen. They were jointly seeking and inquiring in a hostile manner into what Stephen was saying and doing so as to catch him or trip him up in his words.

But they were not strong to stand-against (they did not have the physical strength with all their mental intelligence to withstand, to resist) the wisdom and the spirit by-which he uttered-forth.

Stephen spoke the wisdom (the skillful or expert application of personal knowledge, what to do about different situations or circumstances) that he was receiving from God and/or the Lord Jesus Christ via his holy spirit-life.

Acts 8:6 - noun: semeion

Acts 8:5-8:
.5But Philip having gone-down into the city of Samaria heralded-forth the Christ to them, .6and the crowds had-attention like-mindedly to the-things being said by Philip in them hearing and observing the signs which he did, .7for many-people, of the (people) having unclean spirits (which were) crying-aloud with a great sound were caused to go-out (from them), and many-people having been paralyzed2 and lame-people were attended to, .8and there became much joy in that city.

Philip was one of the seven men chosen in Acts chapter 6 to help in the ministry, but because of all the persecution, he had to leave Jerusalem and he went down into the city of Samaria. Samaria was an area where people of the Judean/Israeli background had mixed with people of the Gentile background, but who said they loved God too.

There Philip proclaimed the Christ (the Anointed-one, the Messiah). A big throng of people turned their minds, thoughts and attention passionately of the same mind on what Philip was speaking...

  • while hearing and observing (listening to and contemplating)
  • the signs (designated signals of authenticity)
    • which Philip did right there in front of them.

Philip was fully aware that he had holy spirit-life within him. Even though the persecution had caused him to move away from Jerusalem, this did not affect the able-power of his holy spirit to help and communicate to Philip what God and the Lord Jesus Christ wanted him to do and say in his new location.

The signs which Philip did among the people of Samaria included casting-out unclean spirits (unclean from the true God’s viewpoint, these were devil-spirits, demons taking their direction from the devil) which had been living in a lot of the people in that area. These unclean spirits were caused to go out from the people even though the devil-spirits would shout-out via those people.

Philip had holy spirit-life within him and so he had the ability and the authority to cast-out devil-spirits from devilized unsaved people as directed by God and/or by the Lord Jesus Christ. Also, those people who now believed what Philip taught received the gift of holy spirit and so any devil-spirit which was in any of these people had to get-out.

As well as that, a lot of the people living in Samaria at that time were paralyzed and lame and Philip attended to them in the appropriate manner. He treated them therapeutically, took care of them as necessary, which was as his holy spirit communicated to him.

What was the result of Philip heralding-forth regarding the Christ, and his performing signs in this city? There became much joy (rejoicing) in that city - a lot of joy!

Acts 8:13 - noun: semeion, noun: dunamis

Acts 8:12 and 13:
.12But when they believed Philip good-messaging concerning the kingdom of God and the name of Jesus Christ, both adult-males and women were baptized – .13and Simon himself also believed, and having been baptized he was being strong with Philip, viewing-with-attention both signs and great abilities coming to pass he was bewildered.

When these men and women believed (had faith in, trusted) what Philip was good-messaging (evangelizing, gospelizing) concerning…

  • the kingdom of God (all that is contained within God's sovereignty, His kingly or royal dominion and government and rule and territory and power, etc, which of course is holy and spiritual because God is the Holy Spirit)
  • and the name of Jesus Christ (which includes all the authority and power which that name involves and stands for)…

…they were baptized.

These people of Samaria were immersed, surrounded into everything that the name of the Lord Jesus includes - all of his power and ability and authority, etc, which means that these people accepted the gift of holy spirit.

Even Simon himself, the man who had been practicing magic, also believed what Philip was evangelizing concerning the kingdom of God and the name of Jesus Christ! He became a son of God just like Philip.

Then he was being strong with Philip (persevering, attending constantly to him). Simon was viewing with attention (contemplating in his mind) both...

  • the signs (designated standards or signals showing authenticity)
  • and great abilities (able-powers, capabilities)

...that were happening as Philip ministered among the people, but he was awestruck and totally-puzzled in his mind. Simon knew how he had done his magical sorceries in the past but he did not yet understand how Philip was able to do all he did.

God’s Word calls the abilities that Philip was doing “great” – these were done by the power of the only true God.

Also, isn't it noteworthy that even though Simon had believed enough of God's Word which Philip spoke for him to be baptized into the name of the Lord Jesus, Simon's mind did not comprehend everything; he didn't know and understand everything regarding God and the Lord Jesus Christ whom Philip had been speaking about! This shows that the changing of a person's physical mind or thinking-pattern is not automatic, nor does God or the Lord Jesus Christ force themselves upon anyone in any way, shape or form.

Acts 9:22 - verb: endunamao

Acts 9:21 and 22:
.21But all the (people) hearing were bewildered and said, "Isn't this-person the (person) having laid-waste the (people) calling-upon this name to-themselves into Jerusalem, and here into this he had come in order that having been bound2 he may lead them on the chief-priests?" .22But Saul rather was enabled and he confused the Judeans, the (Judeans) dwelling-down in Damascus, compacting-together that this (Jesus) is the Christ!

Shortly after Saul (also known as Paul) became a holy-person (Christian), the people who heard him were awestruck and totally-puzzled, both the holy-people and those who did not believe what God had given them to believe.

  • Wasn't this the same man
    • who had ravaged the holy-people who had called-upon the name of the Lord Jesus Christ to themselves in Jerusalem,
    • and he had purposed to arrest the holy-people in Damascus
      • and bring them to the chief/high priests to do as they pleased with them?

Yes, this was the same man physically but he was a different man from God's and the Lord Jesus Christ's point of view - he had become a son of God because he had received the spirit of Christ within him, and Saul also knew it and he behaved accordingly!

But instead of getting annoyed or intimidated by the people's bewilderment and telling the Lord Jesus Christ that it was a bad-idea...

  • Saul was even more-so enabled (given able-power, ability within himself)
    • by the Lord Jesus Christ to carry-out his new master's will,
  • and he perplexed the Judean-people who were living in Damascus by compacting-together that this Jesus is the Christ (Saul was knitting or bringing the truth in conjunction together so as to compare scriptures and thus prove that this Jesus whom he was talking about is the Christ - he is God's Anointed-one, the Messiah)!

Acts 14:3 - noun: semeion, noun: teras

Acts 14:1-3:
14:1And it came-to-pass in Iconium according to the same-thing (for) them to go into the synagogue of the Judeans and to utter-forth thus so-as-for a big multitude both of Judeans and Greeks to believe. .2But the Judeans having been un-persuaded raised and treated-badly the souls of the Gentiles against the brothers. .3Therefore indeed they spent sufficient time boldly-speaking on the Lord, the (One) bearing the word of His grace witness, giving signs and wonders to come-to-pass by means of their hands.

When Paul and Barnabas arrived in Iconium, they did the same thing as they usually did on entering a particular place - they went together into the synagogue of the Judeans.

Then they spoke to all who were present there in such a manner that the consequence and result was that a numerous amount of the fullness of the people, both of the Judeans and the Greeks (Greek-speaking people of the Gentile background) believed God's Word pertaining to the resurrected Christ Jesus. These people believed (had faith-in, trusted) what Paul and Barnabas taught them.

But some of the Judeans were actively unwilling to be persuaded (convinced) and they excited and affected with badness the character and disposition of the Gentiles who had not believed God's Word, against the brothers. Who are the brothers? Paul and Barnabas and every other person who believed God’s Word from both the Judean background and from the Greek/Gentile background. They had received God's gift of holy spirit by means of the Lord Jesus Christ which made them children of God (holy-people, Christians) and brothers of each-other from God's point of view - even though from the physical point of view they may have had different mothers and fathers and different backgrounds!

Therefore what did Paul and Barnabas do? Indeed they spent a sufficient amount of time (enough chronological time) speaking freely and openly based upon the Lord (God) Who was attesting to His own Word concerning His grace (His bestowing of unmerited favor).

God bore this witness by giving...

  • signs (signals, standards of designation and authentication)
  • and wonders (supernatural occurrences)
    • to happen by means of (through) the hands of Paul and Barnabas as they continued among these people.

Isn't it great to see how God was working with Paul and Barnabas, and vice versa, to make known God's Word to give light and salvation to the people in Iconium!

Act 19:11 - noun: dunamis

Acts 19:9-12:
.9But as some-people were hardened and un-persuaded speaking-badly-of the way before the multitude, having departed away-from them he separated the learning-disciples throughly-speaking daily in the school of Tyrannus; .10and this became on two years so-as-for all the (people) dwelling-down (in) Asia to hear the word of the Lord, both Judeans and Greeks;
.11and God did abilities, not the (abilities) having been (ordinarily) attained, by means of the hands of Paul .12so-as-for even handkerchiefs or aprons to be carried away-from the surface-of-his-body onto the (people) being weak, and the diseases to be removed-from them, and the spirits, the evil (spirits), to be caused to journey-out-from (the people).

Some of the people (some of the Judeans who attended the synagogue) who heard what Paul was teaching…

  • became hardened (they became dried-up because of their refusal to partake of God's supply of "water" which is God's spiritual blessing and thus they became stiff, as a dried-up leaf, a leaf having detached itself from the tree that was to be its source of water and nourishment to give and maintain life)
  • and un-persuaded (they were actively unwilling to be convinced with/by the words that they heard from Paul)

…and they demonstrated this by speaking badly of the way. They were embracing both moral and physical badness in their speaking-of or pertaining-to the way, referring in a derogatory manner about the way of God and the Lord Jesus Christ that Paul was teaching before the multitude (in the sight or presence of the fullness of people).

Then, after Paul actively stood away from those people, he separated the learning disciples. He set the students who wanted to learn more off by bounds (he limited them off, set them apart/away from those who were hardened and un-persuaded).

Paul and those who wanted to learn met in Tyrannus' school, as a lecture hall, a place that was convenient where he could teach them free from interruptions. There, from day-to-day and throughout each day, Paul was throughly speaking the word of the Lord (conversing, discussing thoroughly, having dialogue with them concerning the word of the Lord). This was truly a learning environment!

Paul’s throughly speaking in the school of Tyrannus occurred for a two-year length of time, with the consequence or result that all the people…

  • both Judeans (people of the Israeli background, descendants of Jacob)
  • and Greeks (Hellenists, Greek-speaking people of the Gentile background),
    • who were dwelling down (inhabiting)
    • in Asia (the western part of modern-day Asia Minor),

…heard the word of the Lord (the spoken-account of the inner-thoughts proceeding-from and pertaining-to the Lord).

The word of the Lord is the spoken-account of what God says regarding Himself and His son, the Lord Jesus Christ.

And internally connected and related to what is written in verse 10...

  • God did abilities (He was performing able-powers, capabilities) –
    • not the ordinary or usual abilities because these were not normally attained (obtained);
    • these were extraordinary abilities –
      • by means of the hands of Paul (through Paul’s hands).

This does not mean that Paul had to put his hands on top of everybody; it means that these abilities were done by God via Paul; they worked together! God did not exclude Paul nor did Paul exclude God! They were a "Father and son" team working together accomplishing the Father's will which was to deliver these people both spiritually and physically.

The consequence or result of this teamwork was that even handkerchiefs (sweat cloths, face cloths, napkins) or aprons (the half cloth coverings worn by workers such as tent-makers around their own clothes) were brought from Paul's skin onto the people who were weak (without strength, sick, ill).

Paul first touched these cloths before they were put on the weak people, and then…

  • the diseases (the definite sicknesses causing mental and/or physical decline)
    • were removed from them,
  • and the spirits, emphatically and specifically the evil spirits (spirits which are actively malignant, exercising badness, referring to the devil-spirits, demons)
    • were caused to journey-out (to make their journey, proceed, be passed out) from those people who had them.

How kind of God to do this with Paul and for the people! Paul didn't have to be everywhere at the same time, for that would not be possible, but God took care of the situation.

Romans 15:19 - noun: dunamis, noun: semeion, noun: teras

Romans 15:18 and 19:
.18for I will not dare to utter-forth something of which-things Christ did not render-to-work by means of me, with-a-view-to obedience of Gentiles, by word and by work .19in his ability, both of signs and wonders in (the) ability of (the) spirit of God, so-as-for me to have filled2 from Jerusalem and circling-round up-until Illyricum (with) the good-message of Christ.

Paul writes: I will not dare (venture) to speak anything of the things...

  • which Christ did not render to work (did not cause to effect, effectively bring down, achieve)
    • by means of me (through/via me),
  • with a view to obedience of Gentiles (for them to hear what God says, listen attentively to it and then the action carried out in accordance with and resulting from what God says is their obedience),
    • by word (with a spoken account, which contains individual words constituting what is spoken, what is necessary to speak in any given situation) 
    • and by work (with a deed, an action, using energy, producing effects)
  • in his ability (within the cause and sphere of action, character, and attributes of Christ's able-power, his capability),
  • - but the things included in what Christ did render to work by means of me were -
    • both of signs (the signals or standards of designation and authentication specific to each situation)
    • and wonders (supernatural occurrences)
      • in the ability of the spirit of/from God (within the able-power, the capability proceeding from the gift of holy spirit that I received from God by means of the Lord Jesus Christ, which is the spirit of Christ in me),

...with the consequence and result that I filled and continue to make full the area from Jerusalem and all around until reaching Illyricum with the good-message of Christ (the gospel, evangel pertaining into Christ).

II Corinthians 12:12 - noun (twice): semeion, noun: teras, noun: dunamis

II Corinthians 12:11 and 12:
.11...for I owe-it to be commended by you for I lack nothing of the superlative apostles; even if I am nothing .12indeed the signs of the apostle were rendered-to-work among you in all patient-endurance, both signs and wonders and abilities; 

Paul writes relative-to the attitudes and thinking of the Corinthian and Achaian holy-people about what they considered to be thoughtful, or thoughtless, or superlative – to help them to learn and understand God and the things of God.

  • In truth, I am obligated to be commended by you (you are the people who should be favorably introducing me to yourselves and to everybody else, I ought to receive your commendation),
    • for I lack nothing (I am wanting, deficient, fall-short, behind others in not one thing)
      • relative-to the superlative apostles (the apostles who are over-and-above, surpassing to the greatest-degree, the most-eminent people sent forth/away by Christ Jesus on a specific mission or assignment to others – such as Peter or John)!

Even if I am nothing (considered to be not one thing of significance from the worldly viewpoint in the physical category)…

  • indeed the signs of the apostle (the signals or standards of designation and authentication pertaining-to and proceeding-from the apostle, who is the Lord Jesus Christ)
    • were rendered-to-work among you (caused to be effected among you) 
    • within patient-endurance (enduring, bearing-up, staying upright relative to God and the things of God under obstacles)
  • – the signs of the apostle included
    • signs (specific to each situation)
    • and wonders (supernatural occurrences)
    • and abilities (able-powers, capabilities). 

Paul had already manifested the power of the Lord Jesus Christ, the apostle, among them.

Colossians 1:29 - noun: dunamis

Colossians 1:26-29:
.26the mystery, the (mystery) having been hidden-away2 from the ages and from the generations, but now it was manifested to His holy-people .27to whom God intended to make-known what (is) the wealth of the glory of this mystery in the Gentiles which is 'Christ in you, the hope of the glory' .28whom we message admonishing every man and teaching every man in all wisdom in order that we may present every man complete in Christ; .29with-a-view-to which also I labor contesting according to His in-working, the (in-working) being caused-to-in-work in me in ability,

In verse 29 Paul writes:

  • It is with a view to this mystery
    • also that I labor (I exert wearisome-effort or toil as though physically beating myself)
    • contesting in accordance with
      • God's in-working (the inner-working in action, the active energy, the powerfully active work being done, God's effectual work),
    • emphatically the in-working that is presently being caused to in-work (being energized by God)
      • in me (within my holy spirit-life, in the spirit of Christ in me)
    • in ability (able-power, capability – dynamically).

I Timothy 1:12 - verb: endunamao

I Timothy 1:12-14:
.12I have thanks to the (one) having enable me – Christ Jesus our Lord – because he led (his mind to regard) me believing having put (me) into (the) ministry, .13formerly being a blasphemer and a persecutor and a hurtful-person but I was shown-mercy because unknowing I did (those things) in unbelief, .14and the grace of our Lord became-superly more-and-more with belief and love1, the (belief and love) in Christ Jesus.

Paul expresses his gratitude:

  • I have thanks to the one having enabled me (who has given me able-power, ability within, empowered me, made me capable within) –
    • Christ Jesus our Lord (he is Lord/Master of all holy-people) –
  • because he led his mind to regard me believing (he took the initiative, caused it to be in his mind to view me as faithful, trustworthy, a believing person, a believer relative-to God, one who has faith-in, trusts God’s Word),
    • having put me into the ministry (having placed me with a view to the day-to-day ministerial duties or functions of serving others to benefit them, not 'being-subject' to them but doing work to bring profit),
  • formerly (before, previously) I was being
    • a blasphemer  (a person who speaks evilly, treats others with lack of Godly reverential respect, calumniates)
    • and a persecutor (a person who pursues others with malignity as enemies)
    • and a hurtful-person (a person who uses wanton-violence and insolence resulting in injury to others),

…but contrary to that kind of behavior…

  • I was shown-mercy (given active-relief, merited judgment was withheld from me)
    • because unknowing I did those things in unbelief (while I was personally not knowing, being unaware, ignorant, I performed those activities within the sphere of action of lack of belief, faithless, without belief),
  • and the grace of our Lord became superly more and more with belief and love1 (the unmerited, freely-bestowed favor belonging-to and proceeding-from our Lord Jesus Christ became extremely more than it was previously, the amount of grace increased in company and association with faith, what to believe, and God’s kind of love),
    • emphatically and specifically the belief and Godly-love that are in/within the sphere of action, character and attributes of Christ Jesus.

Philippians 4:13 - verb: endunamao

Philippians 4:10-13:
.10But I greatly joyed in (the) Lord because already at-some-time you bloomed-up to think on my behalf, on which also you used-to-think but you used-to be-without-time, .11I do not say (this) because (it is) according to lack for I learned to be self-sufficient in which-things I am, .12I knew2 also to be humbled, I knew2 also to exceed, in everything and in all-things I was initiated2 both to be fed and to hunger, both to exceed and to be caused-to-lack, .13I am strong (in) all-things in the (one) enabling me.

Paul writes to the Philippian holy-people:

  • But I rejoiced with a large measure
    • within the Lord (his sphere of action)
  • because at some past time previously
    • you bloomed-up (as plants which remain alive bloom with flowers from time to time, you blossomed again, flourished afresh in an upward manner)
    • to have thoughts in your mind
      • in my interests,
    • on which (to think on my behalf) also you were continually thinking,
      • not only on one occasion,
      • but you were without the specific time-period (you lacked the opportune occasion or season) required to carry-through on this thinking.

Then Paul quickly points out:

  • I am not laying this out here
    • with the objective-cause being that it is in accordance with a lack that I have (some particular want, deficiency, anything that falls-short or is behind on my part) –
  • in truth I learned to be self-sufficient (holding all adequacy within myself being satisfied with enough and being strong to ward-off anything contrary)
    • during or among the situations or circumstances I am presently experiencing.

For example:

  • I knew and still know (perceive) also to be made-humble (brought to lowliness, a low degree, caused to be in a position of humbleness),
  • and I knew and still know also to exceed (abound over and above the number or measure already attained by me),
    • in everything (within or during all, singular)
    • and in all things (within or during all, plural - every and all situations or circumstances)
    • I have been initiated and I am still initiated (inducted into these things and given instruction which is kept closed-off or shut-up as a mystery/secret from most people)
      • both to be fed (filled with food, being satisfied with enough eaten)
      • and also to hunger (be hungry, hunger-after physical sustenance),
      • both to exceed (abound)
      • and to be caused to lack (caused to be in want, deficient, made to fall-short or come-behind others in something).

Paul explains definitely and clearly:

  • I am strong (I have strength in the physical realm, physically strong)
  • in/for/with/during all things (all situations and circumstances)
    • within the sphere of action of the one who is enabling me (giving me able-power or ability within, empowering me, making me capable within).

Who was enabling Paul? The Lord Jesus Christ. Paul had the spirit of Christ in him, and when Paul was acting within the sphere of action of his master and doing those things asked of him by his master, it was the Lord Jesus Christ who was the efficient and instrumental cause of Paul being enabled with the Lord's ability so as to be strong to carry them out.

During all these different situations and circumstances which Paul became involved in as he carried out God's and the Lord Jesus Christ's intention, the Lord Jesus Christ continued to give Paul the ability to do what he was doing just as he had promised him. This able-power strengthened Paul to carry-on doing the physical tasks he faced during his apostleship.

II Timothy 4:17 - verb: endunamao

II Timothy 4:16-18:
.16In my first defense not-one-person arrived to me but all-people left me down-in (that state) – may (it) not be calculated to them – .17but the Lord stood-beside me and enabled me in order that by means of me the heralded-proclamation may be fully-assured and all the Gentiles may hear, and I was rescued out-from (the) lion’s mouth. .18The Lord will rescue me away-from all evil work and he will save (me) into his kingdom, the heavenly (kingdom), to whom (will be) the glory into the ages of the ages, with-certainty.

Paul writes: During my first defense (when I was speaking my speech of defense the first time in connection with this imprisonment, speaking words trying to get away from that difficult situation before the tribunal)…

  • not one person arrived to me (nobody came to be beside me, none became with me),
  • but on the contrary, all-people left me behind remaining in the state (way, place) that I was in at that time –
    • may it not be calculated to them (my prayerful wish and desire regarding those people is that it would not be reckoned, imputed, counted to them by the Lord Jesus Christ when he will do the judging).

None of the people attending that first defense (the preliminary hearing) came to aid Paul. Paul is not asking Timothy why he didn’t come, or why some of the other holy-people (Christians) mentioned in this letter did not come. He is stating a fact that Timothy would not have known about yet. Paul continues informing Timothy.

  • But the Lord stood-beside me and enabled me (the Lord Jesus Christ actively stood near-by me, he presented himself beside me, and he caused me to be made-able, to have able-power within, he gave me ability, empowered me, made me capable within)
    • for the purpose and result that
    • through me
    • the heralded proclamation
      • may be fully-assured (would be filled-up with assurance, have the full contents of assurance, conviction and confidence)
    • and all the Gentiles may hear (all people belonging to nations other-than Israel/Judah would hear it),
      • and I was rescued out-from the lion’s mouth (I was delivered, snatched or drawn from those who wanted to hurt and devour me on that occasion).

The phrase “the mouth of the lion” could be literal about the lions in the amphitheatre where holy-people (Christians) used to be killed at that time. This phrase could also be figurative in that the lion refers to one who is powerful and strong relative-to others, and in this context could refer to the Roman Emperor Nero. The usage of ‘mouth’ indicates this lion was trying to bite, causing injury to its prey, hurting and killing it and then eating it - Paul being the intended prey at that time.

II Thessalonians 2:9 - noun: dunamis, noun: semeion, noun: teras

In this section of Scripture, God's Word refers to the future activities of the devil/satan and the lawless-one after Christ and the church leave the earth.

II Thessalonians 2:8(a), 9 and 10:
.8(a)and then the lawless-one will be revealed.9whose presence is according to (the) in-working of satan in all ability and signs and wonders of (the) lie .10and in all deceit of unrighteousness to the (people) being destroyed, in-the-place-of which-things they did not accept the love1 of the truth with-a-view-for them to be saved

Paul writes that the lawless-one's coming at a future time will be in accordance to/with...

  • the in-working of satan (satan's inner-working in action, the active energy, the powerfully active work being done within that lawless-one by satan, satan's effectual work)
    • within the sphere of action of all/every
    • ability (able-power, capability)
    • and signs (signals or standards of designation and authentication)
    • and wonders (supernatural occurrences)
      • pertaining-to the lie.

What lie? The devil/satan/serpent's lie is that he is God, and as such he is the one who gives and maintains life etc to all, and all must reverence, worship and serve him and whom/what he designates! This lie began in Genesis chapter 3, and continues being repeated throughout the centuries by the devil and those who decide to follow him as their god in the place of the only true God. "Satan" is the name emphasizing the devil's opposing and adversarial attributes.

The lawless-one's presence will be according to the in-working of satan in all ability and signs and wonders of the lie.

Revelation 12:1 and 3 - noun: semeion

Revelation 12:1-12 records what John saw regarding the events that take place in heaven. These verses continue to reveal the full scope of redemption and salvation that is written in the stars and the constellations.

Revelation 12:1-4:
12:1And a great sign was seen in the heaven - a woman having been clothed2 (with) the sun, and the moon down-under her feet, and on her head a crown of twelve stars, .2and having in (her) womb, and she shouts being in-the-pangs-of-birth and being tormented to bring-forth.
.3And there was seen another sign in the heaven - and look!, a great fiery-red dragon having seven heads, and ten horns, and on his heads seven diadems, .4and his tail hauls the third of the stars of the heaven and he threw them into the earth.

A great sign (a large sign in magnitude, importance, etc, a great designated signal or standard of authentication) was seen in the heaven (it was presented to be perceived with the eyes and known by the one looking at it)...

  • a woman (the sign of Virgo which is the first constellation representing God's people who are part of fallen mankind from whom the savior of mankind would be born, the promised seed of the woman)
    • having been clothed and continuing clothed with the sun (as the sun appeared to be in motion along its ecliptic when viewed from the earth being a vesture, wrap, or covering of the sun's light thrown or cast around the woman),
    • and the moon's location is underneath her feet,
    • and on (above, over) her head
      • there is a crown of twelve stars (a victory wreath or garland prize put on the head of the victor/winner of the contest or race; these 12 stars on her head indicate that she is the first of 12 signs - not because she is a queen),
    • and having in her womb (she is pregnant),
    • and she cries out
      • being in the pangs of birth (travailing, laboring giving birth to a child)
      • and being tormented to bring-forth (the woman was constantly caused torment to produce the child; this torture began as soon as Adam and Eve were thrown out from the garden of Eden recorded in Genesis chapter 3).

And there was seen another sign in the heaven...

  • and look (behold, see, pay attention)!,
  • a great fiery-red dragon (the word "dragon" is used to emphasize the massive scope of activity of what is being described - a large snake/serpent with the color of fire and blood representing the devil/satan; the sign of Draco temporarily taking a high position but is thrown out from heaven and its head stepped on by Christ destroying it; refer to Genesis 3:15 and Revelation 20:2)
    • having seven heads (figuratively referring to his having 7 positions or functions of being the chief or principal part from which to enforce his instruction and directive),
    • and ten horns (each one of the 10 connoting a radiance of strength and power to overcome plus courage in the face of attack),
      • and on his heads seven diadems (7 bands or badges worn to display the position of dignity, royalty, and earthly dominion as kings or rulers),
    • and his tail hauls (forcefully drags)
      • the third of the stars of the heaven (one third of the angels originally assigned to do the only true God's will; refer to Revelation 9:1 where the devil/satan is referred to as a star which previously fell from the heaven and remains in that fallen state)
      • and he threw (cast) them into the earth (this refers to a past event when the dragon assigned his angels to do his will focusing their attention towards the earth).

Revelation 19:20 - noun: semeion

Revelation 19:19 and 20:
.19And I saw the wild-animal and the kings of the earth and their companies-of-soldiers having been gathered-together2 to make the war with the (one) sitting-down on the horse and with his company-of-soldiers; .20and the wild-animal was apprehended and with it the lying-prophet, the (lying-prophet) having done the signs before it - in which caused-to-wander the (people) having received the character-mark of the wild-animal and the (people) worshipping its image - the two living were thrown into the lake of the fire of the burning in sulfur; 

John perceived (knew with his mind)...

  • the wild-animal (referring to the first wild-animal which came out from the abyss; refer to Revelation 11:7, 13:1, 17:11)
  • and the kings of the earth (those who reign as kings ruling certain portions of the earth/land; refer to Revelation 16:12-14 and 16, 17:2 and 18, 18:3 and 9)
  • and their companies of soldiers (referring here to the companies with the wild-animal, including the lying prophet, the 10 kings, and the devil and his devil-spirits, and to the company of men, human-beings with the kings of the earth)

...which had already been assembled together and continued assembled (refer to Revelation 16:12-16) for the purpose of making the war (doing war, causing the battle)...

  • with the one sitting-down on the horse (against the Lord Jesus Christ)
  • and with his company of soldiers (against the company on earth that will be with him at that time; and he will have already gathered together all of those who will be alive from the Judean/Israeli background who believe God's Word to/for them at that time; refer to Matthew 24:27-31);

...and - what was the result of this war?...

  • the wild-animal was apprehended (caught, seized)
  • and in company and association with the wild-animal was the lying-prophet (the false prophet which promotes itself as a religious leader, referring to the second wild-animal which came out from the earth; refer to Revelation 13:11-14 and 16:13),
    • emphatically and specifically the lying-prophet which had done
    • the signs (it had made or performed the designated standards or signals showing authenticity - in this context they were false signs)
    • in the sight and presence of the first wild-animal (refer to Revelation 13:13-15)

... - within the cause and sphere of action of both of these wild-animals...

  • they actively caused to wander (they made to err)
    • the people who had received (taken)
      • the character-mark of the wild-animal (refer to Revelation 13:16-18)
    • and the people who are worshipping its image (refer to Revelation 13:14-16)

... - the two (2) of these wild-animals living were thrown (they were cast alive)...

  • into the lake of the fire
    • of the burning in sulfur (produced by its contents being burned in/by sulphur, with its odor as following a lightning strike, burning stone, brimstone - causing their destruction - the unquenchable fire which will burn all those against God; refer to Revelation 17:8).

Ephesians 6:10 - verb: endunamao; and verse 11 - verb: dunamai

Ephesians 6:10-12:
.10From-now-on, you must be enabled in (the) Lord and in the strongness of his strength, .11you must clothe-yourselves-with the full-armor of God towards (the purpose of) you to be able to stand against the methods of the devil, .12because the wrestling is not for you against blood and flesh but against the rulerships, against the authorities, against the world-strong-ones of this darkness, against the spiritual-things of the evilness in the heavenlies;

In this record, Paul addresses all holy-people teaching us how to behave relative-to the spirit category, and in what manner we ought to live and carry-out all the activities of our everyday life within the spirit realm.

From now on (pertaining-to the time remaining, henceforth)...

  • you holy-people must be enabled (be caused to be made-able, to have able-power within, given-ability, empowered, made-capable)
    • within the Lord (your Master, Christ Jesus)
    • and within the strongness of his strength (the exerted-force, power-in-effect, exerted-strength, of the Lord's inherent-strength, the strength which he now is, having received it from God when He raised him up from among the dead-people – refer to Ephesians 1:20-23, 3:16 and 18).

The Lord Jesus Christ, including the strongness of his strength, is the one in whom (within the sphere of action of-whom and by-whom) you must be enabled during the everyday living of life – not your physical strength, nor your intellectual ability, nor your money, nor your career track, etc. All holy-people have the spirit of Christ within – but it is up to our freedom of will to live accordingly.

From-now-on, you must be enabled in the Lord and in the strongness of his strength – how?

  • You must clothe yourselves (envelop yourselves, put-on as a garment by going inside of it)
    • with the full-armor of God (the whole weaponry belonging-to and proceeding-from the only true God, all or every part of it, the complete panoply, the set of tools or implements of war/battle needed for protection, offense and defense, fully armed)
  • for the purpose/intent of you
    • to presently be able (have the able-power, ability, capability)
    • to actively stand (stand firm, as opposed to falling)
      • in motion against the methods of the devil (the systematic ways or procedures belonging-to and proceeding-from the devil).

Ephesians 3:20 - verb: dunamai, noun: dunamis

Ephesians 3:20 and 21:
.20but to the (One) being able to super-exceedingly do all-things of-which we ask-for-ourselves or we mentally-perceive according to the ability, the (ability) being caused-to-in-work in us – .21to Him (is) the glory in the church and in Christ Jesus into all generations of the age of the ages, with-certainty.

Paul ends a prayer in this section of the Book of Ephesians with words of praise towards God:

  • to the One (God Who is our Father)
  • Who continues being able (having able-power, being capable)
  • to super-exceedingly do all-things (to perform all-things superly out-from excess, to do beyond and over the abundance, above the number or measure already attained regarding all-things)
    • pertaining-to or consisting-of
    • which we ask for ourselves (as an inferior asks a superior for something to be given to him)
    • or which we mentally-perceive (observe with our minds, see to the end of knowing mentally).
    • in accordance with
    • the ability (God's able-power, capability)
    • that continues being caused to in-work (being caused to do work within, to produce effects by being in work, being energized)
      • within us (all of us holy-people via our holy spirit-life) -
  • to Him (emphasis is drawn to the One being able - to God Who is our Father)
  • is the glory (the importance, splendor, renown)
    • in the church (continuing within the sphere of action of the church consisting of all holy-people)
    • and in Christ Jesus (continuing within the sphere of action of Christ Jesus)
  • into all generations (every one of the time-periods of race, descent or kind of living-beings)
    • of the age of the ages (pertaining-to and consisting-of the duration of life, lifetime, of/for/throughout the durations of life, lifetimes – the entirety, for eternity, forever),
      • and this is with-certainty (amen!, truly!, surely!, there is no doubt about this).

Colossians 1:11 - verb: dunamao, noun: dunamis

Colossians 1:9-12:
.9because-of-this we also, from which day we heard, do not stop praying and asking-for-ourselves on your behalf in order that you may be filled (with) the full-knowledge of His intention in all spiritual wisdom and understanding .10to walk worthily of the Lord into all pleasing, bearing-fruit in all good work and being increased with the full-knowledge of God, .11being caused-to-be-able in all ability according to the strongness of His glory into all patient-endurance and patience, with joy, .12and unitedly being thankful to the Father, the (One) having made you sufficient into the part of the lot of the holy-people in the light –

Included in this prayer, Paul writes in verse 11:

  • being caused-to-be-able in all ability (being given the ability, the able-power or capability within the sphere of action of every able-power or capability - repetition of the same root word gives great emphasis to what is being written)
  • according to the strongness of His glory (in accordance with the exerted-force, power-in-effect, exerted-strength of God's importance, splendor, renown)
    • into all patient-endurance (with a view to and resulting-in every bearing-up, holding, enduring, remaining upright relative to God and the things of God under any obstacles)
    • and patience (long-suffering, long-forbearance towards or with others, long-temperedness),
      • with joy (in company and association with rejoicing)....

II Timothy 2:1 - verb: endunamao

II Timothy 2:1 and 2:
2:1Therefore you, my child, must be enabled in the grace, the (grace) in Christ Jesus, .2and the-things-which you heard from me by means of many witnesses these-things you must put-beside believing men, the-people-who will be sufficient also to teach different-people.

Paul writes to Timothy that following-on logically from what he has just written:

  • emphatically you, my child, must be enabled in the grace (be caused to be made-able, to have able-power within, to be given-ability, empowered, made-capable within the unmerited, freely-bestowed favor),
    • emphatically and specifically the grace within Christ Jesus (refer to II Timothy 1:7-10).
  • And, the things which you heard from me by means of many witnesses (you heard the words that I spoke through a lot of people who have information, knowledge of what they are attesting to and can therefore confirm the things that I said on the strength of their own authority) –
    • these things you must put-beside believing men (you must place these things alongside believers, pass these things on from you to those of mankind who are faithful, trusting relative-to God and the things of God),
      • the men/women who will be sufficient also to teach different-people (those who will suffice enough to instruct other people).

We should notice that Paul told Timothy to put the details of what Paul said beside believers (people adjectively described as believing, faithful, trusting relative-to God, and no mention is made about what particular function they may have within the one spiritual body of Christ, nor did he write ‘unbelievers’). Then after Timothy puts these things beside believers they will be sufficient to teach different people, i.e. people who don’t have or know it yet.

The good-message regarding the Lord Jesus Christ is to be taught to all people: to believers so that they can learn more and also to unbelievers so that they can choose if they want to believe and become believers.

I Corinthians 14:22 - noun: semeion

I Corinthians 14:21 and 22:
.21In the law it was written2 that, "If-ever I may utter-forth to this people with different-tongues and in different lips, and not-even thus will they hear Me," says (the) Lord; .22so-that the tongues are with-a-view-to a sign not to the (people) believing but to the unbelievers, but prophecy (is with-a-view-to a sign) not to the unbelievers but to the (people) believing.

Verse 21 is a reference to the Book of Isaiah chapter 28 where the Lord, God, had said that if He would speak to the children of Israel with different tongues and in different lips (at that time it was the Assyrians)...

  • but not even in this manner
  • will they hear Him (will they listen favorably to God - they will not grant God's request by doing what He told them to do).

Paul continues in verse 22: ...with the consequence and result that:

  • the tongues are for a sign (the words in tongues given by the spirit within every holy-person which are uttered-forth by the speaker are for a sign, with a view to and resulting-in being a designated signal, a standard of authenticity)
    • not to/for the people who are believing all that God has accomplished by means of the Lord Jesus Christ including the manifestation of the spirit,
  • but on the contrary, the tongues are for a sign
    • to/for the people who do not believe all that God has accomplished by means of the Lord Jesus Christ including the manifestation of the spirit (as Isaiah wrote);
  • on the other hand, prophecy is for a sign
    • not to the unbelievers,
    • but on the contrary, prophecy (which is also given by the spirit within every holy-person, the words of-which can be understood by the speaker and those listening)
      • is for a sign to the people who are believing all that God has accomplished by means of the Lord Jesus Christ including the manifestation of the spirit.

People have freedom of will regarding their own salvation. However, today also there are people who continue to refuse to believe and do what God says even though God demonstrates to them that what He says and does is the truth and He brings His Word to pass. God has made available salvation to mankind by means of the Lord Jesus Christ - tongues are the sign to/for those who do not believe that this is the truth.

As long as holy-people (true Christians) can speak with tongues it signifies that there are still rejecters of the Lord Jesus Christ in the world, but when Christ comes this will end (refer to I Corinthians 13:8-10).

II Thessalonians 3:17 - noun: semeion

II Thessalonians 3:17:
.17The greeting of Paul by my hand which is a sign in every letter, thus I write.

Paul specifically marks the end of this letter with his own handwriting, showing definitely that this is his greeting with his hand (the word "my" is emphasized), thus authenticating that this is a letter from Paul, the apostle, and not from somebody else who may have wanted to deceive the Thessalonian church. Paul's own hand-written indication at the end of the letter was his safeguard against them being misled by a counterfeit letter. This letter is genuine.