The first reference to stars is written in Genesis 1:14-19 regarding their creation by God to mark significant events, cycles of time, etc.
After the fall of mankind and then God's promise of a coming savior, the Christ (refer to Genesis 3:15 and the study Adam and Eve) - God included the details of His plan of redemption and salvation in the significant events, cycles of time, etc, which the heavens mark. He drew pictures around the stars and taught mankind how to read and understand them. This helped mankind to remember God's truth, knowledge, glory, and purposes, including His plan to redeem mankind (refer to Psalm 19:1-6 and Romans ).
The information written in the stars and constellations are gone out through all the earth, and their words to the ends of the inhabited world. Everybody on the face of the earth can view what God has given to be believed. However, through the years many people did not retain or keep God's words in their minds and as a result many have forgotten or do not understand what is written. But - since the time that the new covenant writings were written during the first century, culminating with the writing (book) of the Revelation of Jesus Christ to John, we have available to us the understanding of the full scope of God's plan of redemption and salvation that is written in the heavenly stars and constellations.
The pictures that God drew around specific stars show 12 signs with 3 additional constellations in each sign (a total of 48 constellations). Various aspects of God's plan are communicated in each of the signs from beginning to end, but each one emphasizes a specific portion of it. No matter where someone is located on the earth, during the nighttime he/she can see the stars including at least 3 of the constellations to display both the sufferings of Jesus Christ and the glory of the resurrected Christ which follows (refer to Genesis 3:15; Luke 24:26; Romans 8:17 and 18; Philippians 2:5-11; Hebrews 2:9 and 10; I Peter 1:11, 4:13 and 14, 5:1 and 10).
The following provides a summary of God's plan of redemption and salvation by means of the Christ (Messiah) which God wrote in the heavens. It begins with the sign of Virgo which is the first constellation - and ends with the sign of Leo. Revelation 12:1 reveals the woman having a crown of 12 stars on her head indicating that she is the first of 12 signs (not because she is a queen) - and the fulfillment is that her son, the promised seed, becomes the king whom God crowns and places at His right-hand side on the throne. In the planisphere of the heavens, Leo stands above the head of the woman with his tail closest to her indicating the end, the final sign.
Some scholars also indicate that Virgo is first just as the sphinx has the head of a woman and ends with the body of a lion.* You may refer to the links below for further details. Some other scholars say that Capricornus is the first sign, and yet others say that Aries is the first sign because the sun passes through it during the spring of a year in our modern calendar. However, in the Bible the month marking the beginning of a year by which the age and reign of kings is calculated is the month of Tishri in the fall/autumn time. Tishri is the month when the woman (represented by the sign Virgo) gave birth to the promised seed - the child being the man Christ Jesus, the son of God, who became the ruler, the king (represented by the sign Leo).
The Christ - emphasizing his first coming on earth, which includes his birth, sufferings, and death, but he gains the ultimate victory:
Virgo (the virgin) - with a branch and an ear of corn - this is the first prophecy of the promised seed whom the woman gives birth to;
Coma (hair / the desired) - a woman with an infant child on her lap - Christ grows to adulthood
Centaurus (centaur / the despised) - a rider on a horse holding a spear piercing a victim - Christ is the sin offering
Bootes (the coming one) - a man Arcturus walking quickly with a branch or spear and a sickle - Christ comes to rule
Genesis 3:15; Numbers 24:17; Job 9:9; Psalm 96:13; Isaiah 4:2, 7:14, 11:1; 53:3 and 10; Jeremiah 23:5 and 6; Haggai 2:7; Zechariah 3:8, 6:12, 12:10; Matthew chapters 1 and 2, 24:30; Galatians 4:4-7; Hebrews 7:26 and 27, 9:14 and 28, 10:10 and 12; Revelation 12:1-5, 14:15 and 16.
Libra (the weighing scales or altar) - balancing the value required to cover what is lacking - the sacrificial offering on the altar to pay the price - Christ's work of reconciliation is finished gaining complete atonement;
Crux (the cross) - Christ patiently endures while being cut off from physical natural life and looking forward to eternal spirit life
Lupus / Victima (the wolf or victim) - Christ is slaughtered
Corona (borealis - northern / the crown) - the crown of rulership is given to Christ who is the victorious one
Job 31:6; Psalm 22:13-18, 49:7 and 8, 62:9; Proverbs 16:11; Isaiah 53:7; Daniel 5:27, 9:26; John 5:24, 19:28; Romans 5:10 and 11; I Corinthians 2:7 and 8, 6:20, 7;23; II Corinthians 5:17-20; Ephesians 2:13; Philippians 2:5-11; Hebrews 2:7 and 9, 9:11-15 and 24-28, 10:5-10, 11:4, 12:2, 13:11-14; Revelation 5:6 and 9, 6:5.
Scorpio (scorpius / the scorpion) - the enemy with claws to entrap the sacrificial offering and seeking to sting the heel of the man, Christ, but the enemy is stepped on under foot - Christ's contest or conflict;
Serpens (the serpent, snake, reptile) - the enemy contesting or fighting with the man, Christ, trying to wound his heel
Ophiuchus (the snake/serpent holder) - Christ is the one who becomes the head/leader and he rules - he is catching the serpent while wrestling
Hercules (the strong one) - Christ is a mighty man being victorious, holding a club, and with his foot on the head of the dragon crushing it
Genesis 3:1-15; Psalm 91:13, 144:1; Matthew chapter 2, 25:46; Romans 16:20; I Corinthians 15:23-28; II Corinthians 11:3; Ephesians 1:19-23, 6:12; II Thessalonians 1:9; Hebrews 2:8; II Peter 2:9; Revelation 12:9, 20:2 and 10.
Sagittarius (the archer) - Christ is the gracious rider with a bow who is able to conquer and in the process of being victorious - his triumph;
Lyra (the lyre or harp) - Christ is the eagle who destroys the enemy, and he is holding a harp expressing agreement and praise to God in celebration, exaltation, and thankfulness for victory
Ara (the altar) - burning all against God and Christ - the consuming fire of God's judgment via Christ
Draco (the dragon) - the large old snake/serpent, the devil - temporarily taking a high position but is thrown out from heaven and its head stepped on by Christ destroying it
Genesis 3:15; Job 26:13; Psalm 21:9, 45:2-5, 64:7-10, 74:12-14, 91:13; Isaiah 27:1, 63:4; Matthew 25:41; Luke 18:8; John 16:33; Romans 12:19; I Corinthians 3:13-15, 15:57; II Corinthians 4:4; I Thessalonians 4:6; II Thessalonians 1:8; Hebrews 2:12, 10:30, 12:29; I Peter 1:7; II Peter 3:7-13; Jude 1:7; Revelation 3:21, 5:8-14, 6:2 and 10, 8:5, chapter 12, 17:14, 19:2, 5 and 20, 20:9-15, 21:8.
Christ's accomplishments - emphasizing the results which include blessings, redemption, and salvation:
Capricornus (the sea goat-fish) - Christ is the sacrificial goat/kid slaughtered on behalf of mankind, but blessings are the result;
Sagitta (the arrow) - God's arrow is sent in judgment via Christ destroying the enemy
Aquila (the eagle) - Christ is wounded in the tail/heel and flying downwards
Delphinus (the dolphin or fish) - rising upwards to live again - Christ's resurrection
Leviticus 16:7-10 and 15-22; Deuteronomy 32:23; Psalm 38:1 and 2; Isaiah chapter 53; Matthew 12:40; Acts 2:22-32, 3:26; Romans 3:24, 6:9, 8:23, 10:9, 14:9; I Corinthians 15:4; II Corinthians 5:15; Ephesians 1:7 and 20; Colossians 1:14; Titus 2:14; Hebrews 9:12-15; I Peter 1:19 and 21, 2:24; Revelation 1:5, 5:9.
Aquarius (the water bearer) - the promised living water of blessing is poured out as a river to all of God's people by the man, Christ, who is the king/ruler;
Piscis Austrinus (australis / the southern fish) - God's blessings are received by people via Christ
Pegasus (the chief winged horse) - Christ is the fast-moving one returning down with blessings from above the earth
Cygnus (the swan) - Christ is the gracious one returning quickly to judge and with blessings from far away
Numbers 24:7; Isaiah 44:3; Joel 2: 28-32; John 4:24, 7:38, 12:13; Acts 1:5, 2:4, 17, 18 and 33, 3:26, 10:45, 11:16; Romans 5:15-21, 14:17; I Corinthians 10:16, 12:13, 15:23-28; Galatians 3:9 and 14; Ephesians 1:3; Colossians 1:13; I Timothy 2:5; II Timothy 4:1; Hebrews 6:14; I Peter 1:3-5, 2:9, 3:18-22; II Peter 1:11; Revelation 1:5-7, 5:12 and 13, 6:2, 21:6, 22:1 and 17.
Pisces (the fishes) - all peoples bound - freedom from bondage and united by Christ;
The Band (the rope) - that-which binds the fishes
Andromeda (the chained woman) - the people of Israel bound in captivity
Cepheus (the crowned king/ruler) - Christ is the man coming to rule - he breaks the bands of bondage and captivity, and he unites all redeemed people with him
Genesis 9:1, 12:3, 22:15-18, 48:14-16; Isaiah 11:1-10, 51:22 - 52:10; Hosea 11:4; John 10:16; Romans 1:16, 2:10, 4:9-13, 10:12, 11:25-33; I Corinthians 12:13; Galatians 3:28, 4:22-31, 5:1; Ephesians 4:1-6; Colossians 1:27, 3:11 and 14; II Timothy 4:1; II Peter 1:11; Revelation 1:5, 22:1.
Aries (the ram or lamb) - Christ is the lamb which had been slaughtered but was raised up by God giving him eternal life - he is alive again, victorious, and enjoying the blessings;
Cassiopeia (the freed woman) - the beautiful woman set at liberty by Christ to reign with him
Cetus (the sea monster) - the large enemy including its followers are subjected, bound, and being destroyed by Christ
Perseus (the one coming between) - Christ is breaking the disguised enemy's head, and he is quickly setting the captives free being the mediator between God and mankind
Genesis 3:15; Isaiah 62:1-7; Joel 2:32; John 1:29 and 36; I Corinthians 15:23-28; II Corinthians 11:14; Galatians 4:26; Ephesians 6:11 and 12; I Timothy 2:5; I Peter 1:18-21; Hebrews 8:6, 9:15, 10:19 and 20, 12:22-24; Revelation 5:6-14, 20:10-15, 21:2 and 10.
Christ's second coming - emphasizing his glory and triumphant victory:
Taurus (the bull; this includes the 2 clusters of Pleiades and Hyades) - Christ is coming to rule, enforcing righteous judgment, and gathering his people together with him;
Orion (the great glorious man) - the shining light of Christ's presence with the two-edged sword and destroying the enemy by crushing its head
Eridanus (the river) - the unstoppable judgment and wrath of God via Christ flowing down a long distance destroying the enemy and its followers with fire
Auriga (the shepherd / misnamed as charioteer) - Christ provides guidance and he delivers the flocks from the effects of the day of wrath
Genesis 3:15; Deuteronomy 33:17; Job 9:9, 38:31 and 32; Psalm chapter 23, 50:3-6, 97:3; Isaiah 13:13-15, 30:27 and 28, 40:11, 66:16; Daniel 7:10 and 11; Amos 5:8; Nahum 1:6; Matthew 2:6, 24:30 and 31, 25:31; John 10:10-16; Acts 3:13, 10:42; Romans 1:18, 2:5 and 8, 12:19, 16:20; I Corinthians 2:8, 3:18, 15:23-28; Ephesians 1:19-23, 6:17; Philippians 2:9-11; I Thessalonians 1:10; II Thessalonians 1:7-9, 2:8; II Timothy 4:1, 8 and 18; Titus 2:13; Hebrews 2:8, 4:12, 13:20; James 2:1; I Peter 2:25, 4:5, 5:4; II Peter 3:18; Jude 1:14 and 15; Revelation 1:16, 3:21, 6:2, 16 and 17, 7:17, 12:5, 19:15, 20:9-15.
Gemini (the twins or united) - Christ's reign in peace and at rest with the peoples united;
Lepus (the hare or enemy) - stepped on by Christ (Orion's foot) and crushing its head
Canis minor (the small dog or Procyon / going before the dog) - redemption accomplished by Christ the redeemer
Canis major (the big dog or Sirius / the prince, which is the brightest star) - Christ is the chief shining prince, the coming brightest and glorious ruler in victory
Genesis 3:15; Psalm 130:5-8; Isaiah 9:6, 55:4 and 5; Acts 2:20, 5:31, 26:23, 28:11; Romans 14:17, 16:20; I Corinthians 1:30, 4:5, 15:23-28; II Corinthians 4:4-6; Ephesians 1:14 and 19-23; 2:13-18, 4:30, 5:13 and 14; Philippians 2:15; Colossians 1:12-20; II Thessalonians 2:7-12; I Timothy 6:13-16; II Timothy 1:9 and 10, 4:1, 8 and 18; Titus 2:11-14; Hebrews 1:13, 9:11-15, 10:13; I Peter 1:18-21; I John 1:5; Revelation 1:5-7, 20:3 and 9-15, 21:23, 22:16.
Cancer (the crab or gatherer) - Christ gathers the multitude together from affliction to joyous safety with renewed life;
Ursa minor (the small bear or dipper or ladle or plough) - the heavenly dwelling, the fold on high - Christ is the hope of glory and he is waiting to gather the flock or herd
Ursa major (the big bear or dipper or ladle or plough) - Christ organizes the final gathering into the fold, the full harvest, and the hope comes to pass
Argo Navis (the ship or Carina/keel, Puppis/stern, Vela/sail, and Pyxis/director; this includes the cluster of the southern Pleiades; all together this is the largest constellation and it is second in brightness to Sirius) - Christ recovers all redeemed people from the enemy's power and he brings the travelers safely home
Job 9:9, 38:32; Psalm 147:1-5; Isaiah 51:11, 61:1 and 2; Jeremiah 30:10, 31:10 and 11; Ezekiel 34:11-16; Matthew 3:12, 23:37, 24:27-31, 25:32-34; John 10:1-18, 14:1-3; Romans 9:23-28; I Corinthians 15:23-28 and 51-58; Galatians 3:13 and 14; Ephesians 1:3, 10 and 18-23, 2:6 and 11-13, 3:7-12; Colossians 1:27; I Thessalonians 4:13-18; II Thessalonians 2:1; II Timothy 4:18; Titus 1:2; Hebrews 3:1, 6:13-20, 11:8-19, 12:22; I Peter 1:3, 13 and 18-21, 2:9; II Peter 1:11; Revelation chapters 20-22.
Leo (the lion; this includes the king/prince star Regulus) - Christ is the conquering lion of the tribe of Judah, and he is victorious, and he defeats the enemy crushing its head with his foot;
Hydra (the serpent, snake) - that old snake/serpent, the devil is destroyed by Christ - the serpent is utterly lost in separation and receives its final end
Crater (the cup) - the cup of God's wrath is poured out via Christ against all contrary to God and Christ
Corvus (the crow or raven) - birds of prey devouring the flesh of people against God and Christ
Genesis 3:15, 49:8-12; Numbers 23:24, 24:8 and 9; Psalm 11:6, 75:8; Micah 5:2; Acts 4:11; Romans 16:20; I Corinthians 15:23-28; Ephesians 1:10 and 19-23, 4:15; II Thessalonians 2:3-12; Hebrews 2:7-10, 7:14, 8:1 and 2; Revelation 1:5 and 6, 2:18, 4:7, 5:5 and 9-15, 12:9, 14:9-11, 16:19, and chapters 19-22.
Additional References: Genesis 11:4, 37:9 and 10, chapter 49; Numbers chapter 2; Deuteronomy 4:19; Psalm 104:19; Isaiah 13:10, 28:1, 40:22 and 26; Jeremiah 10:2, 23:5, 33:15; John 16:13; and Acts 1:11, 3:19-21.
The "Zodiac" refers to a zone of the heavens extending about 9° each side of the circle that the sun travels known as the "ecliptic." It shows a series of steps or a way of moving at a regular pace. It is also known as "Mazzaroth" (refer to Job 38:32) or Mazzaloth (refer to II Kings 23:5) indicating the various division or signs.
Many astronomers include some of these truths in their research and publications, and they have also added many other pictures around the stars. However, there are many people who endeavor to corrupt the truth of God's revelation and they use it in astrology, horoscopes, etc, to entrap unsuspecting people into the devil's web of deceit and lies (refer to Leviticus 19:26; Deuteronomy 18:9-12; II Kings 17:17, 21:6, 23:5; II Chronicles 33:6; and Isaiah 47:9-14).
The links listed below to various websites, books, etc, provide details and references that contribute to/with this study and for which we are thankful. There are many resources available to us today regarding the stars and constellations - but please be circumspect in your studies to stay on track with the truth of God's Word and not to be side-tracked away from it.